Jazaniah Howe’s Jun 1783 Honorable Discharge

This document, for sale by Bauman Rare Books, showed up in our email inbox recently. The name How [Howe] caught our eye.

The history lesson is free. The document is not!

(AMERICAN REVOLUTION) WASHINGTON, George. Document signed. Newburgh, New York: June 11, 1783. Folio, original ivory printed document (measures 8 by 13-1/2 inches) printed on both sides and finish by hand on the recto. WITH: two pay vouchers, each 6-1/2 by 8 inches, printed on recto and finished by hand.

A fine example of a soldier’s discharge, boldly signed “G. Washington,” issued from his headquarters in June, 1783, near the end of the Revolutionary War, instructing that one “Jazaniah How, Sergeant” of the Invalid Corps, having served for six years and one month, is hereby discharged. It is said that Washington insisted on personally signing soldiers’ discharges at the end of the war, wanting to display his appreciation for the sacrifices they made.

This rare June 11, 1783, official document, signed by Washington at his headquarters, comes just three months before the Treaty of Paris would officially end the American Revolutionary War. While the American victory at Yorktown in late 1781 had dealt a mortal blow to the British and effectively ended their offensive operations on the continent, the British still had 30,000 garrison troops occupying New York City, Charleston, and Savannah. Washington remained skeptical of British intentions and was wary of his army easing its guard. “He didn’t know that on November 30, 1782 a preliminary peace treaty had been signed… As another icy winter loomed, Washington sensed deep discontent roiling his troops” and vowed to keep a watchful eye on his men (Chernow, 430). “With little fighting to do… only the hand of Washington kept the army from another revolution” (Clark, 11).

This document also speaks to the Continental Congress’s June 1777 creation of an Invalid Corps, after the terrible losses at the Battle of Long Island. “They suffered overwhelming odds when the tally of losses was taken—records, though not exact in verification even up to this day, show that at least 1,100 were taken prisoner and approximately 300 were killed and 650 wounded. It was considered a great loss for that time when taking into account the number of combatants involved. Faced with this great loss, Gen. George Washington was more than determined to face the task of saving his remaining troops and this, fortunately, he was able to accomplish later. At that time, the idea of forming a different class of regiment occurred — soon to be known as the ‘Invalid Corps.’ This idea, it seems, grew out of discussions and decisions which had been initiated concerning the number of disabilities and the problem of allowances and status of pensions after the battle. So many losses were precipitated during the Battle of Long Island — losses of arms and legs and other body parts — that something had to be done to alleviate the severity of the problems that arose. The plan that was devised was to help the Continental soldiers willing to enter battle, even at the risk of their own lives, and this was to offer what was to be the first American ‘pension plan.’ What Congress decided was to grant half-pay to the wounded and disabled, but also put forth the following caveat, that all such officers and soldiers who were found capable of doing guard or garrison duty should be formed into a ‘Corps of Invalids’ and ‘subject into the said duty'” (Joan Brown Wettingfeld).

Countersigned by J. Trumbull and Jonathan Pugh, the regiment’s adjutant. At the bottom of the document is the declaration that “The above Jazaniah How has been honored with the Badge of Merit for six Years faithful Service,” signed by Lewis Nicola, who founded the Invalid Corps. Accompanying this discharge are two pay vouchers for How, each signed by Eleazer Wales and dated July 25, 1783, one recording the payment of “Sixteen pounds, six shillings and one penny” and the other “Thirty-seven pounds and six shillings”; Jazaniah How signed each document with an “X,” noted as “his mark.”

Bauman Rare Books

Jazaniah Howe (1737-1816) is 3rd cousin 8x removed of MKS in the Wetherbee branch.

The Story of Virginia—Jordan’s Journey, 1621-1640

The Virginia Museum of History & Culture’s signature exhibition The Story of Virginia includes a display of artifacts recovered at Jordan’s Journey.

The Story of Virginia exhibition; Jordan’s Journey, 1621-1640 display; Virginia Museum of History & Culture, 2019.

The display description reads:

Jordan’s Journey, 1621-1640

Excavations at this site in the 1980s yielded information about the architecture of early settlements, lifestyles and standards of living, and the extent of trade in early Virginia.

Survivors of the 1622 Powhatan attacks relocated at eight Virginia settlements; one was Jordan’s Journey. Four complexes were built there to house fifty-five people in fifteen households. Six buildings provided housing; sixteen were agricultural. The largest complex—Samuel Jordan’s—was the size of a football field. Its principle residence was a “longhouse,” 55 x 16 feet, wooden and built on posts set into the ground.

Virginia Museum of History & Culture

Most of the artifacts on display can be found in Artifact Images from Jordan’s Journey [1].


References:
[1] Catherine Alston. Artifact Images from Jordan’s Journey. 2004.

Jordan’s Journey

Jordan’s Journey fortified settlement, Colonial Virginia, circa 1620-1635. [1, 2]

In early 1624/25, the Colony of Virginia made a record of its inhabitants and provisions, known as the 1624/25 Muster. There we find 30 miles upstream from Jamestown, on the south side of the James River, the plantation of Samuel Jordan—known as Jordan’s Journey. Samuel Jordan was a member of the first Virginia Assembly in 1619.

In the Muster, on 21 Jan 1624/25, we find [3, 4]:

  • William Farrar aged 31 [arrived] on the Neptune, Aug 1618
  • Sisley Jordan aged 24 on the Swan, Aug 1610
  • Mary Jordan age 3 years, borne heare [meaning Virginia]
  • Margarett Jordan 1 yeare, borne heare
  • Temperance Baly [Bailey] 7 yeares, borne heare
  • 10 servants, listed with name, age, and arrival
  • 41 others including several families, also listed with name, age, and arrival

The provisions include [4]:

  • 22 houses for 15 households
  • 3 boats
  • 37.5 pounds powder
  • 554 pounds lead
  • 130 pounds shot
  • 18 piece [arms]
  • 11 armor
  • 26 coat of mail
  • 1 coat of steel
  • 6 head piece
  • 1 petronel [“a portable firearm of the 15th century resembling a carbine of large caliber (Jester and Hiden 1987:18)]
  • 561 bushels corn
  • 1 bushel beans
  • 2 bushels peas and beans
  • 1,250 dry fish
  • 20 neat cattle
  • 24 swine
  • 227 poultry

Sisley, or Cicely, is the widow of Samuel Jordan. Mary and Margaret are her daughters by Samuel. Temperance is believed to be her daughter from an earlier marriage.

On 12 Mar 1621/22, the Powhatan natives attacked the colony, killing 347 settlers, a quarter of the population. 10 settlers were killed at William Farrar’s home. None were killed at Jordan’s Journey. After the attack, William Farrar abandoned his home and lived with the Jordans at Jordan’s Journey. Samuel then died in 1623 of unknown causes. William Farrar was made administrator of Samuel’s estate on 19 Nov 1623.

Before 2 May 1625, William and Cicely married. There is an interesting story there—the first breach of promise suit filed in North America—but that is for another day.

The illustration above is the fortified settlement at Jordan’s Journey as it likely appeared on 21 Jan 1624/25 [1]. How do we know this?

From 1987 to 1993, an archaeological excavation was performed at Jordan’s Journey—site 44PG302. 60,000 artifacts of both Indian and English origin were recovered. Twenty-four graves were excavated during the 1992 field season. [1]

From the pattern of post molds (evidence of wooden posts in the ground), evidence of wall trenches, hearths, and chimneys, and other evidence, artist Twyla Kitts created the above illustration. From the 1624/25 Muster, we know that Jordan’s Journey consisted of 22 houses for 56 settlers. Five houses are listed for William Farrar and Cicely Jordan; likely the five largest structures in the illustration. The majority of the houses were therefore outside the palisade fortification (wooden fence). [1, 4]

Jordan’s Journey fortified settlement artifacts map. [7]

The palisade fortification is in the shape of an elongated pentagon measuring approximately 260 feet at its greatest length by 110 feet. The walls are estimated to have been 7 feet to 8 feet high. The evidence does not prove whether the houses were one or two stories high. [1]

The excavation reports [1, 5, 6, 7] provide incredible detail on the six archaeological sites at Jordan’s Point, including the protohistoric Indian settlement located there before, and are well worth a read.


William Farrar (1583-1637) is 11th great-grandfather of MKS in the Spratlin and Knight branches.

Cicely NN (1600-1681) is 11th great-grandmother of MKS in the Spratlin and Knight branches.

References:
[1] Douglas C. McLearen, L. Daniel Mouer, Donna M. Boyd, Douglas W. Owsley, Bertita Compton. Jordan’s Journey: A Preliminary Report on the 1992 Excavations at Archaeological Sites 44PG302, 44PG303, and 44PG315. Virginia Commonwealth University Archaeological Research Center, 1993.
[2] Illustration by artist Twyla Kitts for exhibition Breaking New Ground, curated by Dr. Tom Davidson, Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation. The illustration is featured on the title page of [1].
[3] Alvahn Holmes. The Farrar’s Island Family and Its English Ancestry. Baltimore: Gateway Press, Inc., 1977.
[4] Jamestown 1624/5 Muster Records, Virtual Jamestown, The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, University of Virginia.
[5] L. Daniel Mouer, Douglas C. McLearen, R. Taft Kiser, Christopher P. Egghart, Beverly Binns, Dane Magoon. Jordan’s Journey: A Preliminary Report on Archaeology at Site 44PG302, Prince George County, Virginia, 1990-1991. Virginia Commonwealth University Archaeological Research Center, 1992.
[6] Tim Morgan, Nicholas M. Luccketti, Beverly Straube, S. Fiona Bessey, Annette Loomis, Charles Hodges. Archaeological Excavations at Jordan’s Point: Sites 44PG151, 44PG300, 44PG302, 44PG303, 44PG315, 44PG333. Virginia Department of Historic Resources, 1995.
[7] Catherine Alston. Artifact Distribution Maps from Jordan’s Journey. 2004.

John Witherbee 1666 Court Testimony

Below is an image of the primary source [1] first placing John Wetherby I in Massachusetts, and also establishing his birth year as 1641 or 1642.

John Witherbee court testimony, 2 Oct 1666.

On 2 • 8 • 66 (2 Oct 1666), John Wetherby testifies in the Court of Middlesex County, Massachusetts, in the case of William Kerley vs. Thomas Rice & others. Wetherby (or Wetherbee) is spelled Witherbee in the transcript. October is the eighth month in the Julian calendar used in England and the British Colonies at the time.

In his testimony, John Wetherby states that he is “aged about 24 years,” so it is likely his birth date is before 2 Oct 1642, in either 1641 or 1642.

William Kerley is the Constable of Marlborough, Massachusetts. He files a complaint against Thomas Rice, Edward Rice, and Joseph Rice (three brothers), and Peter Bent claiming they failed to perform night watch duties for the town.

Apparently, John Wetherby was performing night watch one night with Thomas Rice, and John testifies about their encounter with the Constable, John Barnes, and Nathanial Johnson during that watch.

Although the events occur in Marlborough, it is interesting to note that most of the involved parties probably knew each other in Sudbury, Massachusetts, where most of them lived previously. Among the early settlers of Sudbury, we find William Kerley, Edmund Rice (father of Thomas, Edward, and Joseph), John Bent (grandfather of Peter Bent), and Solomon Johnson (possibly related to Nathaniel).

Note below the interesting coincidence regarding John Wetherby and Thomas Rice.


John Wetherby (1642-1711) is 9th great-grandfather of MKS in the Wetherbee branch.

Thomas Rice (1625-1681) is 10th great-grandfather of MKS in the Watne branch.

References:
[1] FamilySearch; Colonial county court papers, 1648-1798; Folio 40; Middlesex County (Massachusetts), Clerk of Court; Family History Library Film 901001 / DGS 007902664.

Dr. William Henry Tutt, ARC Hall of Fame, 2019-2020

The Academy of Richmond County inducted Dr. William Henry Tutt into its Hall of Fame on 17 Oct 2019.

Dr. William Henry Tutt. [1]

His induction biography reads [2]:

Born in Augusta, August 31, 1823, Dr. William Henry Tutt became a name recognized throughout the country as the Physician who created several medicines, that in the nineteenth century were believed to have beneficial effects, including the best known Tutt’s Liver Pills. A graduate of the Medical College of Georgia, Tutt practiced medicine for a number of years. At this time, many Physicians were also Pharmacists. Tutt decided to become a merchant/manufacturer of patent medicines. The first advertisement for Tutt as a wholesale and retail druggist appeared in the Augusta Chronicle in April 1845. Two years later, he was appointed to the Board of Health by the Mayor and would continue to be active in the community in many ways, including several years on the City Council. In 1847, he married Harriet Remson Beall of Lincoln County. They had four daughters and two sons. In June 1860, he announced that he had given his interest in the drug store in Augusta to his brother B. F. Tutt. He moved with his family to New York to expand his wholesale drug business there. Unfortunately, the Civil War began only months after the family’s arrival and while William was able to get passes for his family to return South, he was delayed. Historian Edward Cashin explained, he basically escaped from the North by getting passage to Bermuda, then through the blockade, and finally overland to Augusta. By 1863, he was once again advertising a drug store in the newspaper. After the war, Tutt devised a plan to expand the Augusta canal. Although it did not happen until after he left the city again, he was correct that a larger canal would boost manufacturing and the economic growth of the city.

In 1872, the Tutt family returned to New York again to manufacture medicines, this time staying over fifteen years. He remained in New York until 1888, becoming quite wealthy in the process. He returned to Augusta in 1888 and began to invest some of that wealth for the development of the city. One of the backers and promoters of the Augusta National Exposition that fall, Tutt believed that Augusta could attract wealthy Northerners to the city in the cold months of winter. He bought acreage from the Anne McKinne Winter estate and built the Grand Bon Air Hotel sitting atop the Hill. His vision of Augusta, as winter destination, became a reality for the next four decades. It brought some of the country’s most successful industrialists and politicians of the late nineteenth century for several months each year to the community. The Bon Air introduced golf to the city. This winter colony was an economic and cultural boon to Augusta’s economy. When William Tutt died March 15, 1898, he was a Revered Citizen of the Augusta Community.

The Academy of Richmond County Hall of Fame biography
Dr. Willliam H. Tutt’s Golden Eagle Bitters bottle. [3]

Chartered in 1783 in Augusta, Richmond County, Georgia, the Academy of Richmond County is the fifth oldest existing public high school in the United States. [4]

William Henry Tutt I (1823-1898) is 1st cousin 6x removed of MKS in the Knight branch.

References:
[1] Men of Mark in Georgia, Volume III, edited by William J. Northen, 1911.
[2] ARC Hall of Fame, 2019-2020.
[3] Photo courtesy of Mike Newman, © 2019 Mike Newman.
[4] Academy of Richmond County, wikipedia.org.

Photo Friday—Kathy Wetherbee

Kathleen Lucille Watne (right) and her twin, abt. 1955.

Today is the 74th birthday of Kathy Wetherbee.

What is better than a birthday? Two birthdays on the same day. Twins!


Kathleen Lucille Watne (1945-2017) is grandmother of MKS in the Watne branch.

Knight, Georgia, and the Ray City History Blog

Knight, Georgia. Johnson’s Georgia and Alabama, 1862. [1]

“About 1827, Levi J. Knight and his new bride Ann Clements Herrin homesteaded on land on Beaverdam Creek, near the present day site of Ray City, Georgia. … The Knight homestead was situated in Lowndes County (present day Berrien County).” [2]

Look in the middle of the map [1], just below the city of Nashville, Berrien County, Georgia. Apparently the renown of Levi J. Knight as first settler of the area and as Major General of the 6th Division of the Georgia Militia earned his community a place on the map in 1862 as Knight, Georgia.

The small community is later known as Knight’s Mill (1867), Ray’s Mill (1879), and Ray City (1909).

Our Knight family plays a prominent role in the history of Ray City. Learn more at the excellent Ray City History Blog.


Levi J. Knight (1803-1870) and Ann Donald Clements (1802-1857) are 5th great-grandparents of MKS in the Knight branch.

References:
[1] Johnson’s Georgia and Alabama, by Alvin Jewett Johnson and Benjamin P. Ward, 1862.
[2] Levi J. Knight ~ Settling Lowndes County 1827-1836, Ray City History Blog, 6 Jun 2013.

Priscilla Sanders Will

Priscilla Farrar will, 20 Aug 1807.

This is the last will and testament of Priscilla Farrar, dated 20 Aug 1807. Her original will was recorded in Will Book “B”, Page 25, at Oglethorpe County, Georgia, on 8 Nov 1808. She probably died just before Nov 1808.

She was born in 1729 at Farrar’s Island, Henrico County, Virginia, the daughter of George Farrar and Judith Jefferson. Priscilla married Henry Howard on 4 May 1762 at Lunenburg County, Virginia. After Henry died in 1796, she married Adams Sanders some time after 2 Nov 1798, probably at Person County, North Carolina.

She wills $30 to her son Robert Howard, and that the remainder of her estate be equally divided among those listed below, after deducting debts due to her estate by her sons Hiram ($80) and Abel ($100) Howard:

  • Hiram Howard, son
  • John Howard, son
  • James Patterson, son-in-law by her daughter Margaret Howard
  • Thomas Key (Howard), grandson by her deceased son William H. Howard
  • Abel Howard, son
  • Groves Howard, son
  • Thomas Chambers, son-in-law by her daughter Devina Howard
  • William Carter, probably son-in-law by her daughter Mary Howard
  • Henry William Howard, son

She appointed her son Groves Howard, and Clement Glenn as executors. The will was witnessed and later proved by Nicholas L. Meriwether and George Gilmer.


Priscilla Farrar (1729-1808) is 7th great-grandmother of MKS in the Knight branch.

Judith Jefferson (1698-1786) is 8th great-grandmother of MKS in the Knight branch, and paternal aunt of President Thomas Jefferson.

Nicholas Lewis Meriwether is the brother of Lucy Meriwether, wife of Groves Howard. Nicholas and Lucy are 1st cousins of Meriwether Lewis of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Nicholas Meriwether, Lucy Meriwether, and Meriwether Lewis are also 3rd cousin 9x removed of MKS in the Knight branch.

Nathan Chapman Family Bible

Nathan Chapman (1777-1868) family bible.

This is page 1 of the Nathan Chapman family bible, listing Nathan, his wife Elizabeth, and their 10 children.

Nathan was born in Virginia in 1777. He removed with his father to South Carolina during the Revolutionary War, and then to Georgia in 1790.

On 20 Feb 1800, Nathan married Elizabeth Hart, who was born in North Carolina. Nathan’s brothers Benjamin and Thomas both married sisters of Elizabeth.

Nathan and his family lived in Wilkes County, Georgia (before 1803), and Taliaferro County, Georgia (before 1827).

In the 1860 US Census, Nathan and Elizabeth are still living in Taliaferro County. Nathan is listed as a farmer, and his real estate and personal estate are valued at $2,500 and $7,630 respectively.

As most of the writing on this page of the family bible appears to have been done at the same time (note the similarity in handwriting style, ink density and line thickness), this is a derivative source, and we must treat all of this information as secondary information as we do not know who wrote it and when.


Nathan Chapman (1777-1868) and Elizabeth Hart (1780-1863) are 6th great-grandparents of MKS in the Knight branch.

Source: Ancestry.com user tpeach1891919 (document).